Although we have recently seen an unprecedented industry-wide push to develop green beauty products, true sustainability in skincare is about much more than just pandering to the latest customer trends. It is a wholly different working method, mindset and philosophy. It is a challenge for the beauty industry. Yet if undertaken successfully, it also offers a little spark of hope for the rest of humanity and the planet.
Facial oils are currently bang on-trend, with the ‘serum oil’ format becoming increasingly popular with beauty addicts and skincare lovers alike. Although some may initially be reluctant to try an oil (will it be too greasy, cause acne or block my pores?), the truth is that today’s advanced formulation methods have revolutionised the sector, turning a humble oil into a universal beauty elixir.
Diamond, gold, caviar and truffle… The beauty industry attempts to seduce us each day with miracle formulas ladened with expensive skincare ingredients befitting of gods. However, these powerhouse key actives often come with a hefty price tag. So, the question is: does price really reflect quality?
Charcoal (or activated charcoal) is one of the most sought-after ingredients for everything from our detox drinks, whitening toothpaste to skincare treatments. It is a frantic trend that shows no sign of slowing down. But is it all just hype or is it the real deal?
Marketing gurus all gave the same forecast a few seasons ago: The body care trend would soon surpass that of facial care. Just like when the lengthy 10-step Korean ritual gave way to the birth of ‘skinimalism’, where the focus is on using a select few high-performance products, body care is the category now taking the skincare industry by storm.
The end of 2020 saw a plummet in lipstick sales and a meteoric rise in hand care purchases. The hand care and hand cream market has never been considered a stand-out category in the beauty industry. That is until the use and abuse of hydroalcoholic gels and other hand sanitisers changed consumer preferences.
Collagen and elastin are the undisputed winners when it comes to skin-supporting proteins. But there is another that has captured the attention of scientists: Filaggrin, a protein found inside cells and in the intercellular space. Although still relatively unknown in many beauty circles, it nevertheless plays a crucial role in skin health.
It is all about the eyes and never more so during the mask-wearing pandemic era. Some beauty trends come and go in the blink of an eye, yet others cement themselves into our way of life. With industry experts currently touting our new normal adapted lifestyles as the driving force behind market predictions, it is safe to say that our need for a good eye cream is here to stay.
The humble jojoba plant is often overlooked and dismissed in the skincare industry. Its unparalleled benefits, versatility and sustainability are promptly forgotten in favour of trendier ingredients. However, if the latest beauty predictions are anything to go by, this resilient shrub is set to stage a well-deserved comeback. The future is bright, the future is jojoba.
The extreme purity required by the ever-growing Clean Beauty movement is not without its challenges. However, certain brands seem to have it mastered. How? By embracing the knowledge that fresh, small-batch skincare can take their formulas to the next level.
A new wave of wellness is washing over consumer choices. Experts call the trend sensory beauty and it centres around beauty products designed to evoke feel-good emotions. From therapeutic aromas that transport us far away to exquisite textures that caress our skin, the sensorial elements of beauty products can go beyond helping our skin concerns.
“What happens to our skin during summer? Quite a lot and none of it good,” says Pedro Catalá. As we return to regular life after the sun-filled holidays, don’t forget to transition your beauty regime also. The sunny season can take its toll on our skin more than you might think. Get the most out of your autumn skincare routine and help your complexion recover from the ravages of summer.
Skin discolouration, hyperpigmentation. Three words that make us want to run and hide. Yes, we’re talking about those pesky skin imperfections, usually found on our faces, caused by excessive melanin production. Or more precisely, by the activity of erratic melanocytes that deposit pigment where they’re not supposed to or in a haphazard fashion.
Oat is one of the few ingredients that has a surprisingly lengthy history in the beauty world (over 4000 years) and it’s still considered a skincare hero today. We take a look at 10 reasons to love oat extract and why it’s especially beneficial for sensitive, reactive skin.
If there’s one botanical skincare ingredient that has truly stood the test of time it’s rose extract. Discover all you need to know about rose extract’s secret staying power…
Developed in collaboration with our US friends at Ayla Beauty, Dara’s Water is the cumulation of Dr Pedro Catalá’s unrivalled expertise in botanical formulation and Ayla founder, Dara’s ten-year search for a remarkably gentle, yet effective surfactant-free cleansing solution suitable for all skin types, including the most stressed and reactive complexions. Read on to discover what makes our all new non-micellar cleansing water so amazing.
Although their beneficial properties have been known since ancient times, many of us are still very much in the dark about the amazing skin benefits of olive oil unsaponifiables. Read on to discover what this small but mighty fraction of one of our territory’s most prestigious oils has to offer your skin’s health.
Also known as age spots, sun spots or hyperpigmentation, dark spots can occur anywhere on your skin. Although this skin discolouration tends to be associated with the ageing process, this is not always the case as there are many other factors which can trigger it, such as genetics, hormones, certain medications, skin irritants and certain illnesses. In this post we recap some of our go-to tips to help prevent and treat dark spots, ensuring your skin is as radiant as possible.
Summer is synonymous with sunny days, leisure and relaxation. However, for many of us the rising temperatures also mean suffering from swollen, heavy legs as the day goes on. Although normally not serious, this common complaint can prove troublesome and even painful in some cases, but there are ways to relieve and prevent the problem from being the bane of your summer…
The act of cleansing your face with a black coloured product may seem initially somewhat counterintuitive. However, when you discover that this intense colour is down to a powerful key natural ingredient, you might just change your mind. Find out all about the wondrous skin benefits that activated charcoal brings to the beauty industry …
Following the launch of yet another fantastic product this month (we’re on a roll!), we’ve put together a Q&A section containing your most frequently asked questions on the latest member of the Twelve Beauty family, Charcoal Peace Calming Cleanser …
Summertime is fast approaching and with it rising mercury and hemlines! If the idea of unveiling your bare, dimpled limbs leaves you feeling less than enthusiastic, read on to discover our recommendations on how to tackle one of the most common skincare concerns, cellulite.
We are beyond thrilled with the reception of our new Artemisia Power Protection Moisturiser SPF 50+. As with all new product launches, we have received quite a few questions regarding this SPF moisturising cream, some of which we thought would be great to share in today’s post. Read on to discover which are the most frequently asked questions (and our answers!) about the newest member of the Twelve Beauty family.
With more and more skincare products coming on to the market purported to contain a plethora of free-radical busting extracts, it can be difficult to come across an ingredient that truly stands out from the crowd. Discover how Artemisia Umbelliformis, a lesser known botanical powerhouse often neglected and passed over in today’s saturated antioxidant world, could be just what your skin is looking for.
As 2021’s biggest beauty trend firmly takes hold, we explain everything you need to know about ‘skinimalism’ and how scaling back your beauty routine could be good for you, your skin and the planet.
This is a very long-overdue post, but somehow it didn’t feel right to bring up the use of preservatives in skincare until now. Those who have followed the brand for a while know I loathe scaremongering when it comes to controversial ingredients, and preservatives are no exception. However, as the global pandemic has made us all suddenly aware that microorganisms exist everywhere; in the environment, on our skin, on our clothes…I feel the time is right to take an in-depth look at preservatives and why they’re necessary in skincare products.
This is a question that I get asked quite frequently by both skincare aficionados and natural beauty devotees. The first answer that springs to mind is “the best ingredient is the one that suits your skin, the one you can afford and are committed to using”. If this answer leaves you just as confused as to which is the best natural skincare ingredient, then read on to discover my opinion on some of the most common ingredients found in modern skincare today.
The healing properties of ancient plant-based ingredients are still as prevalent as ever in today’s modern skincare world. Which is why for our carefully formulated Ideal Brightening Corrective Serum, we turned to a unique blend of 12 highly efficient botanicals of the purest-grade to transform uneven skin tone, hyper-pigmentation and sunspots. Discover the remarkable ways these sensitive skin-friendly, wonder ingredients restore your skin’s vitality.
Think you know all there is to know about the skin benefits of vitamin B3? You might want to think again as recent studies have proved that niacinamide still has the skincare star quality to surprise us, just this time with its ability to provide protection against the effects of blue light.
Although prebiotics are better known for their ability to keep your intestinal flora balanced, they can also play an important role in your skin health too – Especially for those of us with oily complexions, who are prone to breakouts or the more recent skin phenomenon: maskne. Read on to discover why new studies have confirmed that epilobium extract is the ideal natural prebiotic for treating acne.
Our eyes have gained more prominence than ever over the recent year, with the constant use of face masks making them our only visible facial feature. It’s no wonder then that one of this year’s beauty trends is taking better care of skin around the eyes, and although opinions are generally divided as to whether we actually need a specific product to treat this area or not– I’m here to tell you why I believe in the power of a good eye cream.
Both the daily weather and the changing of the seasons can play havoc with our skin. In fact, together with stress and pollution, it’s known to be one of the key factors that influences the health of our epidermis. And it’s not just those who live in an area where the seasons are clearly marked that suffer, mild climate residents will also see their skin needs vary throughout the year. Read on to discover just how seasonal changes affect our skin …
Keeping your skin correctly hydrated is probably the most important goal of a healthy skin care routine. It’s no wonder then that Cupuaçu butter is becoming one of the most sought-after vegetable butters in the natural beauty industry. Highly moisturising, jam-packed full of antioxidants and even sustainable, all make Cupuaçu and its amazing skin benefits one of the rainforest’s best kept secrets…
Have you ever found yourself asking how long it will take for your new beauty routine or skincare product to work, even though you’ve only just started using it? And when you don’t see immediate results, you’re tempted to throw in the towel and switch to yet another ‘miracle’ product… If this is sounding familiar, you might want to read on to discover just how long beauty products really need to work wonders on your skin …
It’s no secret that skincare trends closely follow those of the food sector, from organic farming to reclassifying ingredients such as quinoa or blueberries as superfoods. It’s no wonder then, that we’ve gone from “clean eating” to “clean beauty” in a relatively short time. But when all is said and done, are “clean beauty” products actually safer than conventional ones?
Blackheads are a fairly common concern, especially in areas of the skin that are richer in sebaceous glands such as the nose, cheeks, or back. Once formed, they can remain for long periods of time; disappear; or degenerate into inflammatory processes of bacterial origin. So, it’s no wonder that in some cases blackheads are considered a precursor to acne. In this post I want to share with you a natural remedy for blackheads.
If the recent adverse weather conditions have left your complexion looking dull and oh-so dry, read on to discover how to boost your skin moisture levels this winter.
Although we tend to believe that melasma is more prevalent during the summer months when our melanin production is stimulated by sun exposure, symptoms are known to persist during the cold months too. In fact, truth be told, winter time is exactly when you should be upping your melasma treatment game so as to get it under control for the rest of the year.
For many of us, this Christmas will be different from previous ones, which is why at Twelve Beauty we thought we’d try and help make things a little easier for everyone by putting together this gift guide. Choose natural, effective, green skincare this year for a more sustainable, eco-conscious Christmas and start to the new year.
Being sustainable is in fashion. In fact, I’d go as far as to say that “sustainability” has been one of 2020’s biggest buzzwords, with many businesses now promoting their new-found green credentials and love for the environment. But how much is true sustainability and how much is just marketing?
As we transition into the colder months, our skin will likely crave extra moisture to counteract the harsh effects of winter. When it comes to keeping skin hydrated and comfortable, few ingredients deliver the way that hyaluronic acid does. It is not surprising then, that hyaluronic acid makes the top 5 of the most searched for skincare terms of 2020 …
In addition to washing our hands with soap and water regularly, the use of alcohol-based hand sanitisers has become one of the main preventative measures for controlling the spread of COVID-19. However, as time passes, the continuous use of products that contain ethyl alcohol are starting to cause problems for all skin types, and especially for those, who like me, have sensitive skin …
It is no secret that my desert island product is without a shadow of a doubt, the Purifying Cleansing Beauty Cream. From the outset I had a very clear idea my mind – To create an effective cleanser that would also minimise the negative impact the act of cleansing has on our skin. I remember my tutor at the time questioning why I would choose to include such a huge dose of plant-based squalane in a product that rinses off. My reasoning was and still is that by using this coveted ingredient in such a high concentration restores our beneficial skin oil levels, which have been compromised during cleansing – Something that our skin is very grateful for! I’m extremely proud of our plant-based squalane cleanser and judging by the feedback we regularly receive, I know that it’s also much loved by the entire #twelvelovers community.
Did you know that formulas can degrade just as much from oxidation as from micro-organism nasties? And that this same free radical activity over time can also have a negative effect on your own body, both internally and externally? Food for thought, right? Today I want to talk to you about the use of antioxidants in skin care – Powerhouse ingredients capable of not only stabilising formulations but of protecting your skin from oxidation too.
Those of us who have oily skin know that there’s a fine line between ‘glow’ and ‘shine’. Whilst oily skin isn’t necessarily the bad boy of the bunch, an excess of the greasy stuff is less than appealing. So, if you want to know how to ditch the shine and get your glow back, read on to discover some Pedro-approved skin care hacks for oily skin.
Rather than a new normal, I prefer to call it a new reality, as “normal” has very little to do with the current situation we’re all living at the moment. Over the last few months, due to the continuous use of masks and other PPE, many of us have started to suffer from seriously stressed-out skin – Redness, irritation, and what some are calling ‘maskne‘, breakouts caused by wearing masks. If for you the struggle with maskne is only too real right now, you’re not alone. Here are a few tips on how to get your skin back under control.
If we took a peek at times gone by, we’d realise that the use of exfoliating acids in skin care is nothing new. Cleopatra, Queen of Ancient Egypt regularly bathed in donkey’s milk, now known to be rich in lactic acid, while French women used aged wine that contains tartaric acid. Personally, I find chemical face peels quite harsh on the skin and I believe that the benefits they offer can be obtained by other means, but never the less they are very popular. Therefore, as quite a few of you have asked for my opinion on the matter, I’ve prepared a quick guide with their properties, dosage and uses.
Whilst the best “cure” for sunburn is to have avoided damaging your skin in the first place, applying after-sun can work wonders to cool down and soothe hot, angry skin. So, if you’ve been slacking on the sunscreen and you’re looking more lobster-like than bronzed goddess right now, look no further than your bottle of Nutritive Repair Emulsion for the ultimate after-sun treatment.
Skin care products and cosmetics are not a modern-day invention. In fact, we humans have used various substances to cleanse, protect and change the appearance of our bodies for thousands of years. Nature has always been the best source of inspiration, after all many ancient civilizations are known to have used mixtures such as exfoliants made with alabaster powder, honey and salt, and antiwrinkle creams made with cypress extracts for example. However, although the ingredients used can either be natural or synthetic, almost all of them have to go through some sort of ‘process’ before we are able to use them. So, with consumers nowadays leaning more towards products labelled as “natural”, one can’t help but ask just how natural are our beauty products?
The term “exposome” relates to all the exposures, either environmental or lifestyle, an individual is subjected to from birth to death. In other words, it’s the analysis of non-genetic risk factors (synthetic chemicals, dietary constituents, psychosocial stressors, and physical factors) and our corresponding biological responses. Therefore, unfortunately, even if you live on a paradise island in the middle of a (clean) ocean, this means that your environment could still be affecting you! So, are you ready to discover more about the exposome and how it affects your skin health? Let’s take a peek…
Taking proper care of your skin is a must if you want to maintain a healthy, glowing complexion all year around. Last week we discussed how to adapt our beauty regimes to the warmer months and the importance of minimalizing daytime trans epidermal water loss. (See here) Today, however, we are going to delve into your night time summer facial routine and see how you can up your skin care game even while you sleep …
The heat is on! And somehow our will power to stick to a balanced skincare routine goes straight out the window, am I right? How many of you have already started to skip your regular moisturising cream because in high temperatures and high humidity, you feel it’s too much for your skin? Or maybe you read somewhere that hydrating combination or oily skin is a no-no in summer? Well, I’m sorry to have to break it to you, but you’re really not doing your skin any favours. Let’s have a look at the reasons behind why you should moisturise in summer to keep your skin in tip-top condition.
Here at Twelve HQ we love it when you ask us questions! So, when we received a query regarding the difference between our serums and the Ultra Revitalising Elixir, we thought the answer was worthy of a dedicated blog post.
Most of us know that stress plays a big part in our overall health, both physical and mental. However, as common as it is, most of us don’t really consider the effects of stress on our skin. Unfortunately, stress in all its forms can cause detrimental physiological and functional consequences to your looks that you really won’t like…
By including oils in your beauty routine you’re not only nourishing your skin with much needed hydration and antioxidant protection, but you’re also providing it with other key properties such as deep cleansing or germ busting, depending on your oil of choice. In this article we explore some little-known facts about a few of the most common ones available and why the beauty benefits of oils should not be overlooked. Ever!
As you know I am not a big fan of home remedies because some of the most commonly used ingredients can cause irritation, pH changes in the skin or even hyperpigmentation. (Check out our blog article ‘The Dangers of DIY Beauty’ for the lowdown.) However, there are some household ingredients that do work and are safe to use at the recommended dosage. Let’s have a look at what they are and how we can make simple DIY face masks using them…
Those of you who have been following us for a while will know that I personally prefer not to overcomplicate formulas by adding lots of different ingredients, so as to avoid potential preparation errors or problems with contamination. However, I do sometimes opt to use an easy home remedy (which should never replace commercial preparations, of course!) that contains just a single household ingredient – Something that can be quite useful now that we’re spending so much time at home! Let’s have a look at some easy home remedies for dry hands using ingredients commonly found in your kitchen cupboards…
Did you know that screen time can have a detrimental effect on your skin’s health? Yes, that’s right, that screen you sit in front of all day at work and that much-loved smartphone which NEVER leaves your side (even more so now we’re on lockdown!), are both not just bad for your eyes but also for your skin as well. If you’re serious about preventing premature ageing, read on to find out why you need to protect yourself from the potential long-term effects of blue light on your skin and just how to go about it.
You could be forgiven for thinking that looking after your skin microbiome – your skin’s living protective layer – is just another beauty fad. But what if we told you it’s just as important as other valid skincare movements (peptides, stem cells, organic/natural/wild/aeroponic ingredients to name but a few…)? In fact, recent studies show just how crucial our cutaneous microbiome’s role is in skin health and why it shouldn’t be overlooked if we want a healthy, glowing complexion.
Hailed as a the ultimate one-stop practical cleanser that’s readily available everywhere, micellar water is seemingly a god-send for many…But if we press pause for a minute and actually think about it, do we really know what it’s made from and how it works? And more importantly, the effect it’s prolonged use can have on our skin (if any)? So you can make up your own mind, here I am to help you understand the science behind this apparent ‘must-have’ beauty product…
In recent years, we have increasingly turned to online investigation to better understand the ingredients in our facial skincare products, with statistics showing February as the month where we do the most research. So, what is at the very top of that list of key ingredients that we want to google? Retinol, and the almost overwhelming number of questions we have about it. How to use it, when to start, is it suitable for everyone…The answers can seem elusive at times, with the Internet divided in its opinion and recommendations. Here I take a look at the reasons behind the intriguing love / hate relationship we have with this tempting ingredient.
Water is undoubtedly essential for good health if not for life itself, just ask your complexion! Recent studies have shown that even a 10% drop in our skin’s water content can leave it vulnerable to environmental aggressors, making water in skincare products vital for optimal skin health and beauty. But did you know that not all waters are the same? Think back to the last time you double and triple checked all the ingredients on that new beauty product you were about to buy…Did you think to check both its water content and more importantly, where it came from?
If the answer is ‘No’, then read on …
It is no secret that I have a soft spot for San Francisco, one of the most iconic cities in the US. Back in the mid 90’s, when I was introduced to the Armistead Maupin books, I became increasingly eager to visit the city. I always had a great imagination, so his books were the best way of escapism when I felt a bit overwhelmed at university.
Niacinamide is an old time favourite ingredient in the green beauty industry. The niacinamide properties and the high tolerability even on sensitive skin, made it a star vitamin, widely used in skincare. It is naturally derived from nicotinic acid found in many cereals and brewer’s yeast. Once isolated, it undergoes a chemical reaction to become Niacinamide, otherwise known as vitamin B3 or vitamin PP.
When you marry botanical extracts and technology you are in for a rewarding skincare treat, this combination undeniably feeds the skin with functional ingredients that are both, effective and safe. Right now, some innovative raw material companies are shaking up the industry by launching new ingredients, which are the epitome of soft power, gentle to the skin yet highly performing.
If you’ve been considering going green with your beauty routine, the first question you need to ask yourself is what you are hoping to achieve? To make the switch to natural beauty, I believe you need to have a clear purpose to enable you to stick with it successfully.
It’s not a totally straightforward answer, but I’m inclined to say no. Skincare products are designed to be stored at room temperature. However, before they launch new products, reputable manufacturers undertake several tests in skincare fridges to assess the stability of the new product. One of the tests is to leave a sample in a fridge (4C) and observe the behaviour, changes of colour, precipitation of ingredients and a range of other variations over 3 to 6 months.
Squalene, to me, represents the perfect natural alternative to the most common ingredient in skincare, “paraffinun liquidum”which is from a chemical point of view a hydrocarbon, same as the squalene, which comes in liquid form due to its unique structure. I use the stable version which is called squalane.
After last week’s post, it is the time to focus on what not to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Some of the studies on ingredients I have found are not complete enough to establish a proper negative list. In my opinion, while some conclusive data arrives, it is better to avoid them completely.
I have received many emails lately regarding which products are suitable to treat some skin issues during pregnancy, especially, which ingredients to look out for. For this reason, I decided to dedicate today’s post to share all the information I know about this subject.
How to deal with stretch marks:
To prevent them I recommend the following oils, wheat germ, avocado, St John Wort and sweet almond. These oils, increase the softness and elasticity of the skin. They are also very soothing and are able to stimulate the production of fibroblasts (connective tissue cells). Other key ingredients include, ginseng, ivy, horsetail, horse chestnut, centella and echinacea. Also the massage is as important as the actual product or the oil we use.
Once the stretch marks are formed are more difficult to get rid off, but not impossible.
How to deal with hyperpigmentation:
The most common hyperpigmentation case is called melasma, known also as “pregnancy mask” due to the aspect of the dark patches across the face or “moustache” if it appears above the upper lip. It usually fades away, right after giving birth. To prevent, but also to treat, the following ingredients work wonders: mallow, Yarrow, Peppermint, Heath speedwell, Lemon balm, Cucumber, Primula, Buddleja, Lady’s mantle, niacinamide (at least 5%)
Sometimes a vertical line across your abdomen, called “linia nigra” appears, however it fades post-partum.
How to deal with acne:
In an ideal world, it would help to keep your acne under control before pregnancy as it could get worse later on. So if you are thinking of getting pregnant the following ingredients should be part of your routine: panthenol (decreases sebum), vitamin E (avoids the oils secreted from the sebaceous glands to go rancid, linoleic acid (keeps a healthy balanced skin). Also, I always recommend to use a toner, which have usually lowers the pH of the skin, by using this, it avoids bacteria proliferation as they prefer to live in more alkaline (higher pH) environments.
Once you are pregnant and acne appears, I personally like a combination of clay masks together with soothing ingredients such as aloe vera, chamomile and sebum-like jojoba oil. The use of exfoliating acids is strictly discouraged.
How to deal with itchy skin:
It is a very common symptom linked to high levels of oestrogens. It usually appears without a rash.
Incorporating ingredients such as bisabolol, allantoin, calendula oil, squalane, oat, chamazulene, rice oil or ruscus aculeatus extract will bring temporary relief.
In my opinion, skin cleansing is the most important step of the beauty routine. The cleanser has to be highly compatible with the skin composition to avoid the harsh effect of the process but at the same time it has to be effective.
Green beauty has become such a cool subject and currently there are thousands of self-proclaimed beauty experts together with new green hand blended skincare brands launching everyday.
According to the World Health Organisation the urban population in 2016 accounts for almost 58% of the total global population, up from 34% in 1960. Little wonder that pollution seems to be the word that appears in every beauty chat across the globe. Despite the hype, it is not a new marketing strategy; pollution, unfortunately, affects the skin.
With temperatures soaring an UV levels at an all time high, Pedro Catalá of Twelve Beauty counts down the 10 natural ingredients with SPF benefits you need to stock up on.
Discovered in the 70’s, Hyaluronic Acid was initially found in chicken’s crests and until recently, was still extracted from animal sources. Luckily, in the last few years scientists have developed several methods to obtain Hyaluronic Acid from some species of friendly bacteria.
“As a formulator, I always get excited when I find out about new and exotic ingredients. However, I always keep in mind how great and beneficial some of the more traditional ingredients are. Today, we will focus on Aloe Vera, known as the prodigy of nature”.
Our skin changes season to season and so too should our skincare. Long winters, fluctuating temperatures in the Spring and overexposure to Sun in the Summer can play havoc on our skin if we don’t take the right measures to ensure it remains as healthy as possible.
The run up to the festive season can be chaotic with braving the crowds for shopping, Christmas parties and work deadlines. The lack of sleep, increased tension and fluctuations of temperature (normal during the cold season) can lead to a dull complexion.